Ophthalmology Instruments and Their Uses

An ophthalmologist is a medical or osteopathic doctor who specializes in eye and vision care. They are licensed to practice medicine and surgery. This advanced training allows ophthalmologists to diagnose and treat a wider range of conditions than optometrists and opticians. Typical training includes a four-year college degree followed by at least eight years of additional medical training.

An ophthalmologist diagnoses and treats all eye diseases, performs eye surgery and prescribes and fits eyeglasses and contact lenses to correct vision problems. Many ophthalmologists are also involved in scientific research on the causes and cures for eye diseases and vision disorders. Because they are medical doctors, ophthalmologists can sometimes recognize other health problems that aren’t directly related to the eye, and refer those patients to the right medical doctors for treatment.

Eye care professionals must use many pieces of equipment to diagnose and treat patients. Some of the most common pieces of ophthalmology equipment include ophthalmic light bulbs, and chairs of various types. Diagnostic ophthalmology instruments are used to examine and diagnose patients. Ophthalmology equipment also will include various types of lenses.

To provide a thorough and precise examination and diagnosis, an ophthalmologist may use an ophthalmoloscope to view the patient’s eye. This tool generally is made with lenses of varying sizes. The binocular ophtalmoscope will typically have a padded headband for comfort and easy fit. It provides binocular magnification to view interpupillary distance. This instrument generally is protected by a sealed optic vision system to shield it from dust, making it easy to maintain and store.

Another type of ophthalmology equipment used for diagnostic purposes is known as a streak retinoscope. This equipment is used to see the reflection of a patient’s retina, by shining light into the eye. Most are built to be used by one hand operation.

An ocular transilluminator transmits fiber optic light for quality examinations. These typically use halogen lamp bulbs to provide greater light. This ophthalmology equipment will be used to examine the reflex of a patient’s pupils.

Various other pieces of ophthalmology equipment may include tonometers and kerotometers. These eye tracking devices take high-speed measurements. Many feature adjustable monitors as well. Other miscellaneous pieces of equipment are projector floor stands and mirror sets. Visual field perimeters are also necessary in an eye doctor’s office.

 

Types Of Ophthalmology Instruments and Their Uses

Toric MarkerToric Marker  is used to mark 0 to 180 degree reference mark for Toric IOL implant

Pre-chopper: is used to chop lens into pieces before implantation new lens and reduce phaco time

Spectacles (glasses): is used            to correct refractive errors of the eye; not invasive

Contact lenses: is used            to correct refractive errors of the eye; a little invasive

Phoropter : is used in refraction testing

Tonometers         is used to determine the intraoccular pressure (IOP) – useful in glaucoma; video link for various types of tonometers.

Speculum:  is used to keep the eyes open during any operation

Universal eye speculum: is used to do heavy instrument and can not keep eyelashes out of the operating field

Guarded eye speculum (left and right)  : is used -do-; heavy instrument but can keep eyelashes out of the operating field with its “guard” and hence left or right ones are required

Wire Speculum: is used           to keep the eyes open during any operation; light wire instrument

Needle holders:  used for holding the needle in position while applying sutures

Silcock’s needle holder: has a catch and is used for heavier gauge needles; used mainly for skin, muscle and corneal incisions

Arruga’s needle holder:         -do-; has a catch (lock) and is used for heavier gauge needles (thicker than 6-0); used mainly for skin, muscle and corneal incisions

Barraquer’s needle holder:             -do-; small instrument with a spring action with or without a catch used for finer gauge needles (5-0 or finer); used mainly for intraoccular incisions

Ophthalmology Forceps

Artery forceps (haemostat) medium-sized, with a serrated tip and a catch; used to hold bleeding vessels and compress them in order to make them stop bleeding and also to hold or crush structures.

Fixation forceps-           has a few teeth at the tip; for holding structures and restricting their movement or to hold small swabs

Plain dissecting forceps –blunt untoothed with a serrated tip; for holding structures and restricting their movement or to hold small swabs

Iris forceps –Fine tipped (straight or otherwise) with small teeth; to hold the iris tissue during procedures

Elschnig’s intracapsular forceps  – fine untoothed forceps for holding tissue, swabs, sutures, etc.; removing things like clots, capsule fragments, lens, etc.; used in cataract surgery

Arruga’s intracapsular forceps -Fine untoothed forceps holding tissue, swabs, sutures, etc.; removing things like clots, capsule fragments, lens, etc.; used in cataract surgery

Colibri forceps–  fine toothed forceps for holding flaps of cornea or sclera and rarely the iris

Saint Martin’s forceps-  For holding flaps of cornea or sclera and rarely the iris

Superior rectus holding forceps – specially curved (to fit into the orbit of the eye) forceps for catching hold of the muscle bellies of the intraorbital muscles and sutures

Suture tier forceps – fine limbed untoothed forceps to hold fine sutures or hairs

Capsulotomy forceps – to tear the anterior capsule of the lens during cataract surgery

Disc holding forceps – used in glaucoma surgery (obsolete)

Capsulorhexis forceps  – fine sharp-tipped untoothed forceps for doing a continuous curvilinear incision and removal of the anterior capsule of the lens (“continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis – ccc”)

MacPherson’s forceps  -fine sharp-tipped untoothed forceps with an angulation for holding parts of the lens, the intraocular lens, 10-0 (very fine) sutures, etc.

Chalazion forceps (clamp) – self-retaining with discoid ends; used to hold and prevent a chalazion from bleeding during its surgery

Diamond knife- This is  used to perform microincisions on the cornea in the Radial keratotomy and Mini Asymmetric Radial Keratotomy (M.A.R.K.)

Epilation forceps (Cilia forceps) –            stout flat-ended blunt forceps with a thickened end to remove eyelashes

Entropion forceps – self-retaining with big discoid ends used to hold and prevent an entropion from bleeding during its surgery

Chalazion scoop – This is used to remove the granulation tissue from a chalazion during surgery

Entropion clamp – right and left varieties exist; large clamp with two limbs; self-retaining with big discoid ends used to hold and prevent an entropion from bleeding during its surgery

Nettleship’s punctum dilator: This is used to dilate the lacrimal punctum of the lacrimal apparatus of the eye for syringing or operations

Cystitome: a 26 gauge needle bent twice used for incising the anterior capsule of the lens in lens extraction

Wire vectis: a loop of wire attached to a stack used to extract cataract affected lenses

Irrigating vectis: a small hollow instrument with a used to introduce fluid into the anterior chamber to raise its pressure to aid cataract extraction [2]

Canula:  used to carry fluid

Retractor: to pull and hold overlying tissue out of the operating field

Muller’s self retaining adjustable haemostatic retractor -do-; self retaining haemostatic

Desmarre’s lid retractor -do-; specially for noncooperative patients and to see the fornices (see human eye)

Evisceration spoon or scoop: This  is used for removing all the contents of the eyeball during evisceration (complete removal of all structures within the eye in diseases like endophthalmitis

Von Graefe’s cataract knife: cutting out of the anterior chamber from the inside through the limbus

SEE: Neurosurgical Instruments and Their Uses

Tookes’ knife (Sclero-corneal splitter): For making sclerocorneal tunnels in “small incision cataract surgery (SICS)” and keratoplasty

Crescent knife (Sclero-corneal splitter): Making sclerocorneal tunnels in “small incision cataract surgery”

Angular keratome: Used for making sclerocorneal tunnels in “small incision cataract surgery”; larger one used to increase the size of the incision

Side-port blade making sclerocorneal “side port” (a secondary tunnel) tunnels in “small incision cataract surgery”

Beer’s knife: Used to incise the conjunctiva or the eyelid skin

Keratotome: This is a small triangular blade with two sharp edges used to incise the limbus (sclerocorneal junction)

Zeigler’s knife: This is a very tiny knife for intaoccular maneuvers specially when space is less

Bowman’s lacrimal probe : Probing the nasolacrimal duct

Lens expressor: used to force out the lens in extracapsular or intracapsular cataract extraction

McNamar’s spoon: used to force out the lens in intracapsular cataract extraction

Iris repository: two limbed instrument used to remove the iris during posterior chamber maneuvers

Sinsky’s hook intraocular lens dialer : angulated round hook with a handle used in insertion of an intraocular lens

Strabismus hook: muscle hook or squint hook; sharp tip or knobbed tip; used in squint surgery

Foreign body spud and needle: pud to remove superficial and needle for the deep foreign bodies in the eye

Elliot’s trephine with handle : used in corneal donation (eye donation) to cut out the cornea in a circular fashion

Castroveijo’s calipers : various measurements are taken

Castroveijo’s corneal trephine:     used in corneal donation (eye donation) to cut out the cornea in a circular fashion. SEE List Of Ophthalmology Equipment Companies

Ophthalmology Scissors

Conjunctival sac scissors:  This is a flat small curved scissors to cut the conjunctive

Corneal spring scissors: This is a medium spring-open used to cut the external side of the cornea, fine sutures; iris, etc.

De’ Wecker’s iris scissors: A small slender spring-open scissors for intraoccular maneuvers (iris and deeper and more delicate structures); has two wings to operate it and one sharp and one blunt blade.

Vannas’ scissors:  A small slender spring-open scissors for intraoccular maneuvers (iris and deeper and more delicate structures); has two wings to operate it and one sharp and one blunt blade.

Enucleation scissors : thick scissors used to cut the optic nerve in enucleation operation

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