Problematic alcohol use by physicians appears to be increasing, new research shows. However, good data on exactly how common this is and on salient risk factors are lacking, investigators note.
In a systematic literature review, investigators found the prevalence of self-reported problematic alcohol use varied widely, but could affect up to one-third of physicians.
However, all studies were survey-based and self-reported, and definitions of problematic alcohol use were mixed, with inconsistent reporting on differences across sex, age, physician specialty, and career stage.
“Key epidemiologic information of the prevalence of problematic alcohol use in physicians and associated risk factors are unknown, hampering the ability to identify high-risk individuals for targeted interventions,” Manish Sood, MD, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and colleagues write.
The findings were published online on December 9 in JAMA Network Open.
The researchers note that physicians are at a higher risk for burnout and mental health conditions, including depression and anxiety, than the general population, which could contribute to problematic drinking.
Problematic drinking among physicians poses a “serious concern” to their health and ability to provide care, the investigators write. Understanding the extent and characteristics of the issue is important to guide interventions.
To better characterize problematic drinking among physicians, the investigators reviewed 31 studies from 2006 to 2020 involving 51,680 residents, fellows, or staff physicians in 17 countries.
In the studies, problematic alcohol use was measured by a validated tool: the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), AUDIT Version C (AUDIT-C), or the Cutdown, Annoyed, Guilty, and Eye-opener (CAGE) questionnaire.
“Problematic alcohol use” included hazardous, potentially hazardous, risky, at-risk, harmful, problematic, or heavy drinking or alcohol use, as well as alcohol misuse, alcohol dependence, and alcohol, use more than low-risk guidelines and alcohol use disorder.
Results showed problematic alcohol use “varied widely” regardless of the measurement method used. The rate was 0%-34% with AUDIT, 9%-35% with AUDIT-C, and 4%-22% with CAGE.
The data also showed an increase in reported problematic alcohol use over time, from 16.3% between 2006 and 2010 to 26.8% between 2017 and 2020.
True Prevalence Unknown
“It remains unknown whether this increase is indeed accurate or whether it is due to increased transparency by physicians in self-reporting problematic alcohol use because of a changing culture of medicine,” the investigators write.
The data suggest that problematic alcohol use is more common in male than female physicians; but no firm conclusions can be drawn from the data on how problematic alcohol use varies based on physician age, sex, specialty, and career stage, the researchers note.
The true prevalence of problematic alcohol use among physicians remains unknown — and identifying this type of behavior is difficult, they point out.
They add that physicians with problematic use may be “high functioning,” making identifying potential impairment a challenge.
Also, societal stigma and fear of reprisal from professional colleges for reporting or seeking care for problematic alcohol use may encourage physicians with alcohol problems to keep their problems hidden.
The researchers note that future population-based studies with longitudinal designs or using health administrative data could help identify the prevalence of and salient risk factors for problematic alcohol use in physicians.
The study was supported by the Canadian Medical Association. The authors reported no relevant disclosures.
JAMA Netw Open. Published online December 9, 2022. Full text.